the fab 40 who paved the way for a green revolution
It depends on your frame of reference.
It has been pointed out that the Bell Lab invented the silicon photovoltaic cell in 1954.
Others point out that automakers produced hybrid cars and electric cars in the early 20 th century.
But you can go further: Egyptian architecture uses passive cooling technology, which is now making a comeback in modern design.
The emperors of Rome dragged the snow into the Palace of Rome.
Century pioneers in thermal mass cooling and storage, a concept that Calmac and Ice Energy are now touted.
On the 40 th anniversary of Earth Day last week, we paid tribute to 40 pioneers who helped solve difficult scientific problems, designed new business models, or formulated policies, pave the way for the world to adopt renewable energy and/or use our Earth resources more wisely.
They are arranged in categories and chronological order.
Google\'s cloud service was interrupted. protesters interrupted Harris 1 in the Virginia Beach shooting incident of connadik\'s mother. Archimedes.
Century B. C.
He proposed to light the ship with a bronze shield passing solar energy.
There is little archaeological evidence that the Athenians actually use this method, but modern-
The test of the day shows that it can work.
Hydro power also owes him a debt.
He did his best in the bathtub. 2.
As early as the 19 th century, France ruled the green city.
In 1839, Becquerel found photovoltaic cells during the test of electrolyte batteries.
At that moment, the solar component industry was born. 3.
August and Robert Stirling
In the early decades of 1800, Stirling invented the engine named after him.
In 1860, mathematician muchte proposed a solar energy
The power steam engine has become a pioneer in solar thermal systems.
Two major genres of solar thermal technology appear here. (
Clarence Kemp hat tips for designing the first solar water heater in Baltimore in 1891. )4.
Calvin Fuller, Daryl Chapin and Gerald Pearson.
In 1954, the three made the first silicon photovoltaic cell in Bell Labs.
It was only 4% efficient, but Bell soon raised the number to 11%.
Today, the maximum efficiency of silicon photovoltaic is about 29%, and the actual limit is 25%.
SunPower will reach 23% soon. 5. Arnold Goldman.
As early as the 1980 s and 1990 s, the first batch of solar thermal power plants in California began to go online;
One of the biggest producers is Luz of Goldman Sachs.
However, Luz went bankrupt when California decided to let the property tax exemption for solar thermal power plants expire.
But Goldman kept in touch with his engineers and researchers.
When conditions improved, Goldman helped find Luz II, the so-called BrightSource Energy.
Over the next few years, solar heat from various suppliers will account for gigawatts of electricity in North Africa and North America. Part hard-
Part of it is the savvy businessman of social philosophers. Goldman Sachs embodies the attitude of \"doing good, but making profits\", which is a feature of the rebirth of the green industry. 6.
You may scratch your head if you are not in the solar industry.
If you\'re in solar, you might scratch your head too.
McMaster has long been a low-key master.
As an expert in the field of tempered glass, McMaster founded the first solar company in 1986.
The company struggled for years until it was drawn to tellur cadmium, which other solar makers avoided.
Venture capital did not invest in First Solar: Members of the Walton family supported it.
The first solar company launched the first cad-
In 2002, tel panels grew rapidly in its initial public offering in 2005, and a few years later became the world\'s largest maker of solar panels. 7. Zhengrong Shi.
After receiving his doctorate from the University of South Wales, Australia, he established Suntech Power Holdings in September 2001.
Headquartered in Wuxi, Suntech was once a bright spot on radar, but the company has grown rapidly.
It went public in 2005 and now competes with the first solar company for the top spot in the solar market.
As a sign of China\'s entry into the solar sector, Suntech also hopes to cooperate with Suntech in the field of efficient solar panels. 8. Hermann Scheer.
The German lawmaker helped design a renewable energy project in Germany.
Solar energy may never explode without him.
Transportation and oil. Rudolf Diesel.
Diesel has come up with an engine design that is more efficient than gasoline
Burners throughout American roads.
Electric cars are coming and hybrid cars are becoming more and more popular, but by 2020 they may account for only 25% of the cars on the road.
Volkswagen, Audi and others continue to invest research funds in diesel and diesel
Such as the technology of gasoline vehicles.
Trains and trucks will continue to rely on diesel.
Diesel also proves that the fuel that powers his eponymous engine does not need to be dirty ---
He opened his first engine with peanut oil. 10. Henry Ford.
Although he is mainly famous for his master
Ford, committed to mass production and promotion of internal combustion engines, tested electric vehicles in the 1920 s.
During World War II, he studied the use of soy materials on cars.
\"I see that a farmer will not only raise raw materials for the industry, but it will also be time for preliminary processing on his farm.
He would stand on his feet--
1 feet per cent of the land for his livelihood;
\"The cash he needs is another one in the industry,\" Ford said . \".
The ideas were not successful, but historically Ford was more willing to try alternatives than many other major automakers.
The company will start launching a series of products
Electrical and plug-
Later this year, ins also plans to expand its energy use.
Efficient EcoBoost engine. 11. M. King Hubbert.
Patron Saint of research analysts
In 1949, they scoffed at the time that geophysical scientist Hubbert said oil production would peak.
Then, it was in time, in the second stack basin of the 1970 s in Texas.
Saudi Arabia subsequently imposed an oil embargo.
Harbert\'s work includes several of the most important scientific papers on energy that will be published in the last century.
This also marks the need to consider the possibility of a decline in supply. 12.
The founder of OPEC is still the most important counter. Heroes of Green
Without his efforts, the Saudi oil embargo could not have happened.
Without that, countries like Denmark and Japan would not have decided to set efficiency standards to encourage wind, biomass and solar manufacturing.
To some extent, OPEC defines \"black death\" as \"Renaissance\": it is a terrible event that forces contemporaries to rethink their priorities.
Interestingly, Abu Dhabi, the capital of the UAE, an OPEC member, created the Madar er foundation to build a renewable energy industry in the Middle East. 13. Dave Hermance.
Hybrid was not invented by Hemans. -
Ferdinand Porsche made its first car in 1902.
As a Toyota employee, Prius was not invented by him.
However, he paved the way for the car\'s eventual popularity in the United StatesS. The then-
The surprising sales of Prius have once again awakened the dream of e-cars.
Followed closely by Tesla Motors, General Volt and Nissan Leaf.
Hemans is also a frank and upcoming industry spokesperson who is more than willing to explain why the pluginins and all-
Electronic devices a few years ago have not made sense.
He was killed in a plane crash in 2006. 14.
Plan for aquatic species.
ASP, launched by President Jimmy Carter in 1978, is the first project to study algae in depth. algae is a very greasy, high-yield and not particularly good creature that can be converted into fuel.
Some problems experienced by algae startups today-
Control growth, increase yield and eliminate moisture-
ASP has also been encountered, but the project has helped algae become the most promising raw material for biofuels. GRID15. Thomas Edison.
Edison invented the modern power industry.
The concept of General Electric, light bulbs, power plants, and even power grids comes from him.
Interestingly, one of Edison\'s favorite ideas, DC, was out of favor very early.
However, the rise of solar panels and batteries and the need for more efficiency prompted Panasonic, Sharp and others to consider ways to incorporate DC into homes, data centers and office buildings.
16. Nikola Tesla. The anti-Edison.
In addition to the difference on AC/DC, Tesla also supports electrodes-
With fewer lights, the concept of wireless charging is making a comeback. 17. M.
Stanley in Whit court Beckham
A chemistry professor at State University of New York at Binghamton led a team at Exxon to make the first lithium-ion battery.
Whittingham\'s titanium sulfur battery was not hit. -
When Sony launched the lithium cobalt battery in early 1990, it actually had the first commercially successful lithium ion battery.
Nevertheless, it opens the door for the batteries, which greatly improve the storage capacity of portable devices, and soon the car and the grid begin. 18. Ken Lay.
The embodiment of the law of accidental consequences.
Later under the leadership of chief executive Jeff Schilling)
Involved in an evil deal plan that paralyzed the California grid in early 2001.
High oil prices and power outages have pushed Golden State into renewable energy.
Subsequently, 2001 became a key year for green startups.
Suntech Power Holdings, A123 Systems, EnerNoc, CPower, Konarka, green fuel technology, Akeena Solar and Bloom Energy were all established in that year at T. after cash injection, SunPower came back from the edge of deathJ. Rodgers.
In the same year, General Electric approached the bankrupt Enron on the acquisition of its wind power sector.
GE bought it and began to enter the market. 19.
A man of foresight is also, to some extent, a tragic figure.
Ballard launched Ballard fuel cells with great fanfare in the 1990 s.
Profits have been running away from the company, just as profits have been running away from many companies spawned by Ballard alumni, but the dream of fuel cells still exists.
Bloom Energy, Panasonic and Ceres Power may eventually turn it into a complete
You can put the ovonics promoter Stan Ovshinsky and many other inventors in the same category, who can paint a great future, but don\'t reap the rewards of achieving the vision. 20.
David Brewster and Tim Healy
Analysts continue to argue whether the term \"smart grid\" was created by Andres Cavallo or Masood Amin.
In fact, the concept of smart grid existed before the term appeared.
As early as 2001, Brewster and Healy set up EnerNoc to provide demand response services to utilities to suppress peak power, which is actually the ultimate goal of the smart grid.
EnerNoc did not invent this category-
Rival Comverge is actually older-
But it is the largest company in the field, controlling more than 3 gigawatts of electricity, and perhaps doing the most in popularizing the smart grid concept. (
Like many other early energy startups, EnerNoc had a hard time getting VCs to listen to them at first. )
We would also like to give Echelon a hat tip here.
The Powerline network was invented with the idea of connecting TV and PCs, but Italian utility Enel used it as one of the world\'s earliest and largest smart grids ---
30 million and growth.
Apple is looking for power cord models for its home energy system.
Mike Makura: It\'s no coincidence-
An early investor, a third employee and former chairman of Apple-
Set up echelon.
ELECTRONICS21. Shuji Nakamura.
Nak did a lot of things in his early 90 s that were thought impossible at the time: White LED.
The invention transformed Nichia from a small Japanese manufacturer to a global industrialist.
After suing Nichia for a certain share of the economic rewards, nak has also become a folk hero among Japanese wage earners.
Nak now teaches at the University of California at Santa Barbara and has been involved in two startups
Ups called Kaai and Soraa. 22. Dave Ditzel.
Ditzel, a former Sun Microsystems chip designer who founded Transmeta in 1990s, had the idea of low productionpowered, Intel-
Denzel\'s theory is that the ever-increasing power budget for modern chips will drain the battery in the laptop and cause the server to melt.
Transmeta collapsed miserably.
However, Intel, Advanced Micro-devices and other devices are
The power spell from Transmeta.
In the process, electricity prices climbed and the electricity industry turned to a public utility budget rather than a collapse.
Energy efficiency is now a top priority in IT.
The final irony is that Desel is now working for his old rival Intel. 23. Fujio Masuoka.
While working at Toshiba, Masuoka introduced the first chip to keep data even if the host is turned off.
Even today, chip makers see flash as a miracle. (
Secret: The memory bits on the flash memory chip are encapsulated in silica or glass.
Once the electrons are pushed in, they will be there for a few years).
Flash effectively reduces the weight and battery life of mobile phones, MP3 players and other devices.
Next, Flash will explore the data center through companies such as Sandforce and significantly reduce the power required for e-commerce. 24.
Mendel Rosen Bloom
Father of virtualization.
Like Ditzel, Rosenblum was initially not primarily concerned about energy conservation.
He figured out how to get more work from each server.
As the founder of VMware, he is still teaching at Stanford University near Foothill Junior College.
Virtualization is now the standard for green data centers. Runner-
Up: Marc Beniof for virtualization
Dependent softwareas-a-Service concept.
Alternative energy 25. Lord Kelvin.
Lord Kelvin began recording ground temperatures in the 1830 s.
He found that, a few feet below the surface, they remained relatively stable throughout the year.
Then, in the 1940 s, Robert Webb revised the concept and proposed the first geothermal heat pump.
In most parts of the United StatesS.
Ground temperatures below 5 feet remain roughly the same throughout the year: 45 to 50 degrees Fahrenheit in the north of the country and 50 to 70 degrees Fahrenheit in the South.
Pipes that bring air into the room during the summer provide cooling (
Heating in winter).
More ground cooling can help solve the outrageous air conditioning dilemma. 26.
Charles slow and Pede HansenWho?
The brush build is considered the first automatic wind turbine to generate electricity.
The turbine built in Ohio in 1888 has a 50-
Foot diameter and 144 blade.
There are now three industry standards.
At the same time, Hansen founded westerjysk-
Stalteknik A/S, or Vestas, for short, on 1945.
The company entered the wind energy industry in 70 years and provided key support.
The company has also played an important role in making Denmark a leader in alternative energy. 27. Stephen Salter.
Back in his 70 s, Edinburgh University\'s Stephen sorte thought waves, especially the torrent off the Scottish coast, could be used to generate electricity.
The duck came out of the idea, a wooden paddle --
Like a device that collects wave energy.
Margaret Thatcher tried to kill the wave Project in her 80 s, but the university described wave research as an important technology for defense. Falklands-
Thatcher made this project-
Test tank for Salte-survive.
The University of Edinburgh remains the center of wave and tide research and Scotland still wants to generate electricity and export from the sea.
The original tank has been rebuilt several times, but in this video you can still see some of the original equipment of Saltyre.
28. Enrico Fermi.
In 1940s, the first fission experiment was conducted by Fermi, in which a third form of primary energy was found.
The other two are solar.
Wind energy, fossil fuels, waves and biomass are indirect forms of solar energy)and gravity (
Geothermal, tidal, hydropower).
Nuclear waste is produced by fission, but nuclear power plants do not emit carbon dioxide.
From Dan Carmen at the University of California, Berkeley, to Ernie Moniz at MIT, experts believe that nuclear energy remains a necessary part of the future grid.
Although fusion can eliminate waste problems, it is still experimental.
Scientists and policy makers
President three in a row.
Theodore Roosevelt established the National Park and made protection an official government policy.
Nixon passed the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act and other environmental legislation.
Carter is pushing for American support. S.
Foreign oil has helped build the scientific backbone of the United States. S.
Replace the industry and make sure the cardigan will never become a fashion manifesto again.
It is difficult for all three parties to be elected by their own parties. 30.
Roger Ravel and Hans Seuss
Revelle of Scripps and Suess of the US Geological Survey wrote a paper in 1957 proving that the chemical nature of the ocean limits how much carbon dioxide the ocean can absorb.
It opens a debate about global warming and climate change mitigation. 31. Art Rosenfeld. Huge!
Back in the 1970 s, Rosenfeld, a physicist at Lawrence Berkeley Labs (
And the last graduate student at Fermi)
Electricity consumption in California and the United States will exceed our ability to produce electricity.
He made great efforts to get the country through efficiency regulations.
The appliance maker made a big fight, but California won the 24 th championship.
\"They all claim to be (expletive)
\"We know the end of civilization,\" he told me in 2006 . \".
\"Cars travel 14 miles a gallon.
Energy efficiency is not part of American ethics.
\"What about the results?
California\'s per capita electricity consumption remained relatively stable, but almost doubled in the rest of the country.
The results can only be attributed in part to the \"Rosenfeld Effect \".
Nevertheless, the impact is great.
Modern refrigerators consume half as much as refrigerators in their 70 s, can accommodate more food, and are less costly after inflation factors are adjusted.
His work may have offset hundreds of billions of dollars in energy savings.
Until recently, Rosenfeld served on the California Energy Council and recently published a paper on possible efficiency improvements in white roofs. 32. Steven Chu.
As early as 2004, people asked Zhu steve, why did he leave a relaxed and happy job?
The Nobel prize winner of the rich Stanford University manages the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to solve all the budget problems brought about by managing a state
Run the organization.
He will answer the question of energy.
Let BP contribute $0. 5 billion to the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Illinois Institute of Biological Sciences as one of his first achievements.
As Minister of Energy, he has been handing out checks since then. 33.
Together with Michael Braungart, an outstanding architect and chemist, the manufacturer is encouraged to redesign the product to improve efficiency and recyclability.
But more importantly, recycling and renewal has changed from the punishment of the pilgrims to a statement of style.
Face it: If bamboo doesn\'t look cool, consumers won\'t snap them up on Target. 34. Alan Salzman.
One of Green\'s earliest venture capitalists.
Salzman\'s VantagePoint risk partner has invested money in Adura Technologies (lights)
Network of tendrils (home networks), Ze-
Better Place for Gen, Bridgelux, Solazyme and Tesla Motors.
So far, venture capital companies have had a tortuous history of green, and VantagePoint has not been involved in the few green exports that have already occurred.
I can\'t even find a decent acquisition there.
Still, billions of dollars for green companies will one day be likely to sprout, and the variety and choice in the vante portfolio heralds good prospects.
If you have to put VC on the list, Salman should be recognized. 35. Al Gore.
If he could be like nature and self
During the campaign, he was assured that because he had been speaking on a tour, he might never have to turn to the joke that \"I used to be the next president of the United States.
The Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change.
There are only a few small questions on Page 976.
Thousands of scientists behind the report firmly identified climate change as a scientific reality. 37.
Arnold SchwarzeneggerIt\'s fantastic.
The star of \"kindergarten police\" is one of the most critical figures to help shift the debate around green technology from environmental issues to economic issues.
You can\'t go to a factory in California without running into him talking about chobs, chobs and chobs.
Food and water.
Sidney Loeb and Srinivasa Sourirajan.
Scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles, showed in 1949 that seawater was purified by reverse osmosis.
The two also invented reverse osmosis desalination in the 1940 s at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Although the reverse osmosis plant has been built mainly in Israel and the Middle East so far, it is expected to see more in Australia, South Africa, the Southwest and other dry areas.
A big complaint about reverse osmosis-
High energy demand for the process--
Companies like energy recovery are improving.
Statkraft in Norway has begun to try to generate electricity by the sea using RO membranes. 39. Simcha Blass.
At the request of the farmer, Blass investigated why a tree grew in a dry soil.
Reason: The pipe is broken.
The experience prompted him to invent drip irrigation.
The business of saving water has begun, albeit slowly but certainly. 40. Norman Borlaug.
The most controversial option on the list
The plant scientist pioneered drought breeding techniques.
Resistant to crops such as wheat.
Mexico, India and other countries have successfully achieved themselves.
It was found through his research that this was enough, and it was also thought to help avoid mass hunger and riots.
Known as the green revolution in agriculture, the excessive use of nitrogen
Based on fertilizer and overpopulation.
Many people try to solve the fertilizer problem with biological pesticides. Overpopulation?
Borlaug believes that this is more likely to be caused by social forces than by the supply of food.
Venture capitalists have recently turned their attention to agriculture.
Sam Mehta and Eric Wesoff contributed to this one.