challenges to structural glass: what have been already done?/statybinio stiklo issukiai: apzvalga.
Today, the use of structural glass is becoming more and more important as its main part is not only used in the manufacture of doors or windows, but also in consideration of the wider aspects.
Of course, glass can be an excellent material for building a responsible building.
The well-designed glass structure can withstand considerable load, usually as the main bearing element of buildings such as columns and roof beams, stairs, canopy racks, etc.
In the past 25 years, some glass buildings have been implemented worldwide.
As the most famous example of glass structure, the Apple store opened in Munich (Fig. 1)
Shanghai, New York and the rest of the world.
The main purpose of the Apple store in New York is to design all load-bearing structures from glass to make the building more transparent inside and outside.
First, an internal staircase and bridge was designed, built and built from the structural glass.
These elements need to give maximum attention and effort in terms of the properties of the connected elements.
The walls of the building are bonded by 3 glass plates, while the roof beams are made of 5 pieces of glass.
The special metal fitting details on the beam bracket between the beam mesh glass platforms are glued together.
The implementation time of the project from design to construction is 5 years (2001-2006).
The author mentions further research in order to find more improved glass bearing elements for connecting nodes, with special attention to cleaning the surface during structural maintenance (
O Callahan and others. 2007). [
Figure 1 slightly]
In addition, the all-transparent glass pavilion of Aachen, Germany (
Wellershoff and others. 2003)
And Delft in the Netherlands, using glass beams and steel bars (Bos et al. 2005)were designed.
One of the most important goals of these glass fragments is to conduct scientific research in order to study the behavior of loaded glass elements and the overall structure as much as possible under natural conditions.
Most of the studies that have been conducted are carried out using separate factors.
Therefore, the focus of the researchers is more focused on the behavior of the columns of the entire structure and connecting nodes, as well as the beams with steel bars.
In addition, a glass dome and pavilion for commercial use were built.
One of the buildings was built in the Netherlands. Fig. 2).
A courtyard between the two listed buildings will be covered
Glass roof used as a foyer (Fig. 3).
The price of the roof will not be much better than that.
High quality steel structure covered by glass.
At a height of about 15 metres, the buildings of the gentle slope span almost square spaces. Load-
The supporting structure is the grid of the beam.
The five composite main beams are approximately 14 m long and consist of offset parallel glass fins, and the zigzag splayed form is based on the approximation of the moment curve and the available glass size.
Compared to the arched form, these elements can be cut without laser cutting, and waste can be reduced by cutting (Detail. de).
The narrow focus on an object discussed only in this paper illustrates the need for more detailed study of the glass structure, to identify areas and weak areas for in-depth research and possible problems in the use of glass in modern or refurbished buildings.
This paper briefly outlines the glass structural elements (
Beams, columns, plates)
And problems with their connection and design techniques, including the nature of the design code.
Conclusions include areas with the most and least investigated in relation to glass structures, as well as some suggestions that need attention when selecting areas for further study. [
Figure 3 slightly]
Structural glass beams (Table 1)Glass beams (Fig 4)
Usually get bonding-up a few (4-6)
6-glass plateThickness 18mm.
Due to its flat cross-section, the glass beam has a high slender
Ness of lateral torsional flexion.
The collapse load is not only affected by the glass beam defect, but also by the stiffness of the sandwich represented by laminated safety glass.
Thesandwich is made of two materials,-
Glass is the glass and PVB of elastic material (E ~ 70 000 MPa)
PVB is sticky
Time and temperature depend on the elastic material of the behavior.
The research focus of strengthening glass beams is the application of glass as structural building materials, which reflects the development of the concept of safety of structural glass beams.
This safety concept is similar to reinforced concrete and is designed to achieve a highly redundant structural glass beam by pasting a reinforced part on the edge of the glass.
The purpose of this study is to validate and improve this concept through experiments, analysis and numerical verification, and to develop structural design guidelines for structural engineers in order to apply this concept to architectural practice (Louter 2007).
Structural glass column plates for floors, roofs, elevations and railing elements (Tables 2, 3)Glass plates (Fig. 5)
It is widely used in such fields as facade, guardrail, stair or balcony floor, roof building, etc.
The use of laminated glass panels ensures safety requirements in the event of a collapse, and glass debris does not spread into the environment and does not cause harm to people.
Recent investigations have found that there are differences in opinion and controversy over drilling.
Some authors argue that drilling is not the best way to fix.
Taking into account the deformation of the entire frame and plate, numerical simulation is performed using a finite element modeling program.
The results show that the behavior of glass design on side collision operation has not been fully explored, and further research is needed.
To ensure safety requirements, a probabilistic approach to glass panel design has been developed.
The results obtained using the program suggest the application of the widest possible calculation method while estimating the reliability of the glass plate (
The application of theoretical bearing capacity calculation, using the software 3D digital simulation finite element method, using the actual size or proportion to test the natural structure).
Adjusting the value of security factors can be explored in more detail. [
Figure 4 slightly][
Figure 5 Slightly]
These findings lead to further studies to find ways to achieve minimum stress on the motherboard.
Complete experiments in hybrid design (Glass and steel)
This opens the way for the hybrid development of glass and steel truss.
Fixed and bonded connection between steel and glass (Table 4)
One of the most sensitive places in the glass structure is the area where the connection is installed (Fig. 6).
There are usually several types of fixed glass members in the support. (Siebert 2007), (Bernard 2008)
The results show that the connection with drill holes and steel rivets can withstand the force of up to 143 cattle.
Special glue can be used for joints (Weller et al. 2008).
The main problem with tempered glass joints is the residual stress generated after complex heat treatment, and the general behavior of the nodes that evaluate the unilateral friction between glass and metal connectors and their losses (Dong To et al. 2007).
Test results of different methods of fixing glass plate elements on building support (Mocibob et al. 2007)
It is shown that better stability can be obtained by using large diameter steel bolts, although this does not depend on the fastening conditions.
It is generally believed that the strength of the adhesive depends largely on the quality of the process.
This fact makes it hesitant to allow the control mechanism for bonding connections in structural engineering.
However, little is known about the sensitivity of adhesive strength to unqualified processes.
Therefore, the impact of architecture
Site-related contamination of three different two binding strengths
The composition of epoxy resin was studied in experiments.
What\'s important is that not all ads
Sives is greatly affected by pollution.
With particle-based contamination, particle size (
Related to the thickness of the adhesive layer)
Seems to be the main variable.
Cement, gypsum and small grains of sand have a considerable impact on the bonding strength.
Large particles of sand will have more impact.
This study highlights the relevance of the sensitivity of the properties of the adhesive selected as the study and adjustment of the adhesive to the quality of the application.
At least in terms of pollution, it does not seem entirely reasonable to carry out the general caution of error.
Application of strong adhesive (
Not sensitive to application errors)
A lot of hesitation can be overcome at the moment, although the proper execution of the adhesive should obviously always be directed (Bos et al. 2010).
In a research project, the Institute of Building Structures has studied the properties of light and UV-cured acrylic glass structures tested by different adhesives (Fig. 7). [
Figure 6 slightly][
Figure 7 Slightly]
Special attention was paid to the static and dynamic stress of Amino, the strength of different adhesive samples and the aging resistance to the joints.
These adhesives are usually analyzed as bulk materials and applied as joints between glass and metal. Dumb use-
It is recommended that Bell samples analyze material behavior under various influencing factors such as temperature and test speed.
A question of particular interest is testing at situspecimens.
In order to determine the material properties of the adhesive joints, samples of different geometric shapes can be used.
In the case of glass structure configuration, docking
The bonded hollow cylinder is especially suitable.
In order to connect the glass parts, the structure must be modified.
The structure with on-time welded joints was tested to demonstrate the potential use of the acrylic joint inglass treatment.
To examine the effect of aging on the adhesive, some components are exposed to natural wind (Vogt et al. 2010).
In order to bond glass and metal, ultrasonic is a common practice in the electronic industry of connecting glass
Ceramic carrier materials and conductors.
In the solar industry, contact areas are placed on photovoltaic glass and ultrasonic glasstometal Bond (USB)
Vacuum tube similar to the bulb industry.
Using an ultrasonic \"sonotrode\" punch, the glass and metal merge as if they were welded together (Friedl et al. 2010).
When designing glass structures, difficulties in design standards arise in calculations, standards/specifications, and measurements.
Since this is a relatively new area, it is currently governed by only a few standards: DIN 18008 in Germany, OORM 3716 in Austria, CAN-Canada-CGSB12. 20-
US Code astm-M89E1300-97, Australian-AS 1288-
European projects for BS 6262 and prEN 134741, prEN 13474-2, prEN 13474-3 (Siebert2007; Beer 2005; Calderon 2007).
However, these specifications include only a small area of glass adaptation in design and construction.
Existing specifications include basic rules and concepts, peripheral glass and on-site fixing, additional requirements for handrails and floors, and special structures.
Standard DIN 18008 provides specifications for design and construction rules as well as for the required experimental verification. Theload-
The carrying capacity, location persistence and availability of the glass structure under planned action are discussed.
The standard is designed to add additional standard parts.
DIN 18008 Standard series, \"building glass--
The \"design and construction rules\" are intended to consist of the following: Part I: terms and general foundations;
Part 2: glaze with linear support;
Part III: fixed glass (in preparation);
Part IV: additional requirements for autumn
Safety glass (in preparation);
Part 5: additional requirements for walking glass (in preparation);
Part 6: additional requirements for glass available for cleaning and maintenance measures (inpreparation);
Part VII: special structure (in preparation).
Technical rules for glass structures are available in Germany, including technical rules for glass as a fall-proof device/railing (TRAV)
Technical regulations for linear supporting glass windows (TRLV)
Technical regulations for point support glass windows (TRPV).
The common design of the glass structure is carried out through the modal static load until convergence on the allowable stress.
All the structures of the building are modeled as a component, applying a 3D finite element program along with a single element or complex connection.
Temperature changes were also evaluated in the calculation.
Most authors mentioned in their publication that the application of hybrid structured glass and steel structure/connections based on Lyon calculations is not entirely reliable and additional testing must be carried out (Beer 2005).
There is also a new device for measuring glass stress (Fig. 8).
Ilis strain is an automatic and objective measurement of stress in glass, plastic and other translucent materials.
In addition, the measuring machine also includes software (Fig. 9)
Allow immediate recording and analysis of stress values in glass samples (Ilis. de).
The increasing popularity of glass public buildings and the impact on the environment and human security have made Russia a concern.
Russian parliament, 2007 (Duma)
It is considered to be a technical description of the safety rules for glass and its products used in buildings and buildings.
The main purpose of this document is to establish regulations and conditions to reduce life and health risks, create certification procedures for designers of glass buildings and structures, and develop the use of modern glass and its products in structures (Chesnokov, etc. 2007). [
Figure 9 omitted
At present, there is no normative document to standardize the calculation method of elastic glass.
Plastic materials in Russia.
In order to calculate the strength of the flat glass used in the translucent structure of the glass, the research center of Samara University of Architecture and Civil Engineering conducted experimental and theoretical studies on flat glass samples that applied uniform distributed loads during lateral bending
Researchers have shown that based on application flexibility-
Ratio of short edges to thickness of plastic materials and glass plates (b / h)
The strength of the flat glass less than 100 cannot be calculated (Zubkov et al. 2010).
Japanese scientists published their first normative document in 1971 (Kikuta et al. 2001).
They are constantly improving, so as to evaluate the changes in glass production technology, the greater thickness of the glass and more accurate wind load through the correction of safety factors.
China is in the first step of standardizing glass structure (Xinyong et al. 2007).
However, due to language barriers, there are not many English papers on glass surveys in China or India.
This is also typical of all European scientists because some have problems with Russian.
Due to the simple calculation, most glass structure design standards are proposed based on the determination of the original strength. -
Power on the Cross
An area based on a complex empirical expression or a complex calculation method can cause serious errors or inaccuracies in the results of the calculation.
Therefore, designers who deal with structural glass buildings usually have to perform design calculations in the laboratory, and the laboratory cannot provide real construction site conditions, so the builder may produce inaccuracies and errors (Beer 2005).
The study of structural glass and its structure is reviewed and the following conclusions are drawn :--
For engineers, the design of the glass load-bearing structure is still a huge challenge. --
Most authors argue about the actual use of glass structures, but do not specify why. --
One difficulty in the construction of the glass structure is the installation of the connection. --
No scientific articles related to structural glass surveys or test and design specifications were found in Lithuania. --
The main part of the author mentioned that it is not entirely reliable to calculate the mixed structure glass and steel structure/connections, so parallel tests must be carried out. --
It is observed that there are many articles about the natural experiment and numerical experiment of exploring the plate by finite element method. --
It is determined that there is less research on fatigue. --
The main part of the test is done using separate elements.
Only a few articles describing all construction works and monitoring the behavior of structural glass were examined.
Structural glass is not a subject that has been fully studied.
A limited number of test results do not guarantee a belief in the behavior of the glass structure.
Further study the assembly method of Square/rectangular shape of glass elements, friction joints, developed elements of shape I or glass elements, which can carry out bonding connection and fatigue of glass elements or the whole structure.
The review carried out suggested more testing and research in the field of world structural glass.
Therefore, this review is a very temporary matter that requires consistent interest and additional knowledge.
Discussion Glass provides a variety of possible applications to achieve the most ambitious design in the building.
It has experienced unprecedented innovation in the past 20 years.
For planners and engineers, this means constant use of this high
Glass is a relatively cheap material, but the cost of the glass building increases the total price, which means that the profit is obtained from the existing stereotype, but at the price of the material.
In particular, the world\'s largest cities are facing problems with clean buildings.
This problem is closely related to glass structure and social problems, because many people die when cleaning buildings every year.
In terms of the life cycle of the structure or building, more attention should be paid to the circulation aspect.
The glass structure may be more eco-friendly and responsible.
Some further studies should address the impact of contamination and aging on the durability of structural adhesives.
Although the glass structure has been studied in Europe for 30 years, so far, there is no consensus on all aspects and rules of the design.
The glass euro code is moving very slowly.
The structural classes in the building education package were improperly developed due to information provided by university students. doi: 10. 3846/skt. 2011.
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